Using Quotations in Texts

Citations are required when a person uses:

1) a paraphrase of the words, opinion, or idea of another person

2) the exact words (written or spoken) of another person

A citation can be written as a footnote (in the footer of a document), as an end note (at the end of a document), or as an in-text citation (within the document).

If exact words are being cited, the format of these words depends upon the length of the quotation:
        a) short quotation
            A short quotation is woven into a sentence and enclosed within quotation marks.

        b) a long quotation
            A long quotation is usually introduced with a sentence explaining the context of the quotation.

For APA style, a long quotation is more than 40 words and is double-spaced.
For MLA style, a long quotation is usually more than 4 lines of prose or more than 3 lines of verse/poetry and is double-spaced.
For Chicago style, a long quotation is usually more than 5 lines of prose and is single-spaced.

* If any words are omitted, an ellipse, three periods preceded and followed by a space ( . . . ), is used to indicate where the words were omitted.
** If any word is changed, square brackets [ ] are used to indicate the substituted word.
*** If a word has been identified as being misspelled or grammatically incorrect, include the correct usage of the word followed by [sic] to indicate that the word has been changed.

Formatting Citations
** Use the "References" tab of Microsoft Word to create footnotes or endnotes.


1) APA Style
The Basics

A Sample Paper

2) MLA Style
The Basics

Formatting Quotations

A Sample Paper

3) Chicago Style
Books

Periodicals

Web Sources

A Sample Paper